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Frequently Asked Questions

On Radiology

What is Radiology ?
What is the difference between Radiology,  Radio-diagnosis & Imagiology ?
How Radiology is useful for patients ?
What are the various methods in Radiology?

On X - Ray

What is an X-ray ?
How  X -rays are useful in Diagnosis ?
Why should I hold my breath while taking X-ray?
What are the dangers or side affects of X-rays?
How to over come the side effects of X-rays?
Has any patient had an allergic reaction or side effects with barium?
What is the role of Image Intensifier
 in Radio-diagnosis ?

On CT Scan

What is CT Scan ?
What is mechanism in CT Scan ?
What are indications for CT Scan ? or In what diseases CT Scan is useful?
What is purpose of intravenous contrast in CT Scan?
What is purpose of Oral Contrast in CT Scan of abdomen?

On Ultrasound

What is Ultrasound?
What is the mechanism involved in Ultrasound Scan ?
What are the advantages of Ultrasound Scan ?
For what diseases Ultrasound Scan is useful ?
How Ultrasound scan is useful in Pregnancy ?
Are there any side effects /radiation/dangers to mother or to baby with Ultrasound Scan?
What is the role of Colour Doppler in Ultrasound ?
How much time is required to complete the Ultrasound Scan?
Why  full bladder is necessary for Ultrasound Scan?
What's the purpose of the gel during the Ultrasound Scan ?
How sex deteramination is possible with Ultrasound Scan ?
Fasting is necessary for Ultrasound Scan?

On MRI

What is MRI?
In what diseases /conditions MRI Scan is usefull?
What are advantages of MRI Scan over CT scan ?
Patient should not move in Magnetic Tunnel. why?
Is it safe if Pregnant women under go MRI ?
What is Radionucleid Scan ?
What is Angiography ?

What is Radiology ?


Top

Radiology is the study of images of the human body. A Radiologist is a physician who has become a specialist in Radiology - a doctor who has taken additional training in the interpretation of medical images. Although Radiology initially starts with X-ray images later it extends to Ultrasound, CT, MRI, Angiograms, Radionuclide images studies etc.

In general, "Radiology" refers to medical imaging techniques, employing advanced computers and other complex equipment, that allow doctors to see inside a patient's body without  blood shed & pain. Although the word "Radiology" implies radiation, not all of the techniques actually use radiation. And although radiology is most commonly used for diagnosis, sometimes it's used therapeutically -- that is, for treatment.


What is the difference between Radiology, Radio-diagnosis & Imagiology ?


Top

Radiology or Radio-Diagnosis or Imagiology are more or less synonyms .

How Radiology is useful for patients ?


Top

Radiology is playing a key role in the management of Disease / Patient by giving information about nature, site, extent of the disease in addition to cause and complications of the disease. By this information it is possible to decide what treatment (medical or surgical)  is necessary for that disease. If surgical, whether patient is fit for surgery or not. It will  inform about time to do Surgery and plan for surgical approach.

Radiology is also useful in interventions like FNAC (Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology) , Abscess Drainage , Tumour Ablation and  in treating vascular lesions like Aneurysm , Arterio-Venous Malformations .

Radiology is also useful in therapeutic follow up of the disease, especially to know the possible recurrence of the tumour. Radiology is also useful to detect the complications following a surgery.
  
Most important thing in radiology is early & accurate diagnosis. So that with early & appropriate treatment will  reduced mortality & morbidity


What are the various methods in Radiology?


Top

There are different methods through which a radiologist can diagnose the disease.  
These are as follows.

    X-rays.
    Image Intensifier.
    Ultrasound & Color Doppler.
    CT Scan.
    MRI.
    Angiography.
    Radio-nuclide study.

Certain diseases need only one diagnostic method for establishing diseases. Majority of diseases need more than one investigation. Usually Radiologist & clinician will decide what methods are essential to bring out the disease information.

Let us study about all these methods in detail.


What is an X-ray ?


Top

X-rays are part of high frequency electromagnetic radiation.  Because of special properties like penetration through soft parts of body and reactions with photographic emulsion, X-rays are useful in diagnosis of disease from its discovery by William Roentgen in 1897.

How  X -rays are useful in Diagnosis ?


Top

X-rays are useful in diagnosis of diseases involving bones, lungs, gut, kidneys & gall bladder.
X-rays are used in CT- scan , Image intensifier, Mammography .
X- rays are useful in detecting the congenital, inflammatory, traumatic, degenerative & neo-plastic disease with variable sensitivity & specificity depending on  region ( part ) affected.

Plain :: 
X-rays alone are used. Eg. in bone,  lungs, intestines,  kidneys & gall bladder stones. diseases. When x-rays are used alone its diagnostic capacity is limited. Certain diseases need only plain X-rays for diagnosis.

Contrast ::  
Contrast (barium / iodine ) solution & X-rays are used to get disease information. In this procedure first contrast is given through various routes depend upon region of investigation. Then X-rays are used/applied. Addition of contrast (barium / iodine solution) has widened the applicability of X-rays. Contrast is given orally / intravenously /other routes depending upon region ( part ) under investigation.

Contrasts studies ::
Barium swallow is to evaluate Oesophagus disorder .
Barium meal is to evaluate stomach diseases.
Barium follow through to evaluate small bowel diseases.
Barium enema to evaluate colon diseases.
Intravenous contrast for functional & structural assessment of kidneys.
Myelogram for spinal canal pathology.
Hysterosalpingogram studies of  Uterus & Tubes of infertile women.
Angiogram study of lumen of blood vessels.


Why should I hold my breath while taking X-ray ?


Top

Patients are often asked to hold their breath; depending on the part being examined, this may be on inspiration or expiration. This is so the chest and abdominal organs will not be moving and "blurred" on the films.

What are the dangers or side affects of X-rays?


Top

X-ray radiation is dangerous if exposed to excessively.

How to over come the side effects of X-rays?


Top

Strictly following the safety precautions in X-ray room.

Image intensifier is X-ray based device with very low radiation to patient & to operator. 
It is useful for real time, dynamic study of organ or system.


Has any patient had an allergic reaction or side effects with Barium?


Top

Yes, but it is extremely rare. Only a small percentage of the population has experienced an allergic reaction to the barium or to the flavoring materials.

What is the role of Image Intensifier in Radio-diagnosis ?


Top

To reduce risk of radiation to both patient & operator.
Image intensifier is an X-ray based device with very low radiation.
Useful for real time, dynamic study of organ & systems.

What is Ultrasound ?


Top

High frequency (20 to 20,000 MHZ) sound waves are called Ultrasound.

What is the mechanism involved in Ultrasound Scan ?


Top

Ultrasound  waves are reflected back after passing through body.  These reflected sound waves are analyzed by computer & displayed as image on monitor.  Radiologist will interpret the image.

What are the advantages of Ultrasound Scan ?


Top

No radiation risk.
Noninvasive.
No special preparation.
Immediate report.
Reproducible results.
Painless.
Sedation is not required.
Inexpansive

For what diseases Ultrasound Scan is useful ?


Top

It is useful for liver, gall bladder, spleen, kidneys, urinary bladder, uterus, ovarian, pancreatic diseases.

To evaluate structures & functions of heart.

High frequency probes are useful to investigate eyeball, thyroid, breast, scrotum, infant's brain, joint diseases.

In pregnancy - ultrasound scan provides maximum information regarding fetus & its environment.


How Ultrasound Scan is useful in Pregnancy ?


Top

In 1st. three months (1st Trimester)
     Confirmation of pregnancy.
     Viability of pregnancy.
     To know the single / twin pregnancy.
     Type of abortion.
     To know the short cervix / incompetance.
     Congenital anomaly like absence of head (anencephaly).
     Maternal uterine & ovarian abnormalities.
     Ectopic pregnancy.

4th,5th,6th months (2nd Trimester)
      Congenital anomalies.
      Growth pattern.
      Liq. quantity.
      Placental position.

7th,8th,9th months (3rd Trimester)
       Congenital anomalies.
       Growth pattern.
       Liq. quantity.
       Placental position.
       Position of foetus.
       Foetal movementes.


Are there any side effects /radiation/dangers to mother or to baby with Ultrasound Scan?


Top

No worth mentioning side effects / radiation so far.

What is the role of Colour Doppler in Ultrasound ?


Top

Now-a-days Colour Doppler is playing a major role in ultrasound. With Colour Doppler radiologist evaluates blood vessel lumen, blood flow velocities & flow direction studies.

It is a base line investigation for heart diseases.


How much time is required to complete the Ultrasound Scan?


Top

The exam length varies depending on the part or region and disease. Most ultrasound exams are completed within an hour.


Why  full bladder is necessary for Ultrasound Scan?


Top

When looking for problems related to the bladder you need the bladder full to view the bladder walls.

In women, a full bladder flattens out the uterus and pushes the bowel out of the way so that the sound is easily transmitted.

In men , full bladder is required to scan prostate.


What's the purpose of the gel during the Ultrasound Scan ?


Top

The purpose of using gel is to aid in the transmission of sound between the transducer and the body part being examined.

How sex determination is possible with Ultrasound Scan ?


Top

After fourteen weeks, if the baby is in a position which will give us a window to see the lower body, then we will certainly try to identify the gender of the baby. Before fourteen weeks we probably will not be able to identify the gender.

Fasting is necessary for Ultrasound Scan?


Top

Yes .You may be asked not to eat before certain ultrasound exams so that our images of the abdomen will be clearer. We also need to see the gallbladder as part of the abdominal exam. If you have eaten, we cannot see it because it has emptied in order to help digest the food.

What is CT Scan ?


Top

CT scan is short name for computed Omography. It is x-ray based equipment. "CT scan"  is a technique that uses X-rays to take many multiple "cross-section" images of the body, which are then assembled into a three-dimensional image by a computer. It is painless non -invasive radiological investigation.

What is mechanism in CT scan ?


Top

 After passing through body , x-rays are captured by detectors , analysed by computer & displayed on screen as image.

What are indications for CTscan ? or In what diseases CT scan is useful?


Top

Headache.
Head injury.
Vertigo.
Epilepsy.
Paralysis.
Stroke.
Unconscious.
Head size is inappropriate for age.
Psychiatric problems.
Few lung diseases.
Pancreatic problems.
Any fixed swelling over scalp.

What is purpose of intravenous contrast in CT Scan?


Top

To know the nature of lesion like granuloma,
tumour, vascular malformation, venous
sinus thrombus in brain.
To detect number of lesions.
To know the extension of lesions.

What is purpose of oral contrast in CT Scan of abdomen?


Top

Plain (without contrast) CT abdomen , bowel loops are difficult to differentiate from adjacent normal or abnormal structures because of similar density.

Oral contrast media (iodine solution) is hyper dense .so once contrast solution is taken before (according to protocol) ,all bowel loops are filled with hyper dense solution. So it is easy to differentiate bowel loops from adjacent normal or abnormal structures.

What is MRI?


Top

'MRI',  is a technique that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to take multiple 'cross-section' images of the body, which are then assembled into a three-dimensional image by a computer.

In what diseases /conditions MRI scan is useful?


Top

Headache
Head injury
Vertigo
Epilepsy
Paralysis
Stroke
Unconscious
Head size is inappropriate for age
Psychiatric problems
Few lung diseases.
Pancreatic problems
Any fixed swelling over scalp.

What are advantages of MRI Scan over CT Scan ?


Top

No radiation.
No bony or air artifact.
Multi-section imaging.
High intrinsic contrast.
Specificity & extension of disease is  more accurate.
Few diseases can diagnosis early.

Patient should not move in Magnetic Tunnel. why?


Top

Patient  should not move when he hear the knocking sound. In between pictures, for most exams, you may reposition your arms, or scratch your nose. It is important that patient should not move the body part being imaged until the exam is complete.

Is it safe if Pregnant women under go MRI ?


Top

There is no known reason not to have an MRI during pregnancy. However, we generally try to avoid offering this exam if you're in the first twelve weeks of pregnancy. We ask that your doctor speak with one of the MRI radiologists (the doctors who specialize in MRI) to discuss whether this is the best exam to help diagnose your medical symptoms.

What is Radionucleid Scan ?


Top

Techniques for creating images that show the function of internal organs. Nuclear medicine does this by using a "gamma camera" to take pictures of small amounts of radioactive materials that have been introduced into the body.  Total radiation dose is small.

What is Angiography ?



Top

'Vascular / interventional techniques', Angiography allows doctors to see inside the body's blood vessels by introducing a very thin tube (catheter), injecting a contrast into the tube, and then taking X-rays. This is useful for finding various irregularities or blockages which can affect the heart and other organs.

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